The effect of silymarin on the liver in thermal burn injury
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Hepatic homeostasis and metabolism are essential for survival in critically ill and severely burned patients. Silymarin, the major component of thistle milk has been shown to have hepatoprotective effect. In this study the effect of silymarin on the liver of burned rats was investigated. Wistar Albino rats were exposed to 900C bath for 10 seconds to induce skin burn. Silymarin either locally (30 mg/kg) applied on 4 cm2 area or locally+systemically (50 mg/kg p.o) was administered after burn and repeated twice daily. Rats were decapitated 48 h after injury and blood was collected for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. In liver tissue samples, total protein, tissue factor activity (TF) and activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), glutathione- S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkalen and acid phosphatase (ALP, ACP respectively) enzymes were determined. In addition polyacyrlamid gel electrophoresis was carried on liver tissue samples. Burn caused a significant increase in blood TNF- α and LDH levels. Total protein levels and ALP activity increased and SOD activity decreased in the liver tissue at 48h after burn. Both local and systemic silymarin treatment significantly reversed this parameters except ALP. Silymarin treatment significantly increased ALP activity. Local silymarin treatment increased, CAT and ACP activities and decreased TF activity compared to control and burn group; and increased CA activity compared to systemic+local silymarin treatment. Addition of systemic silymarin treatment to local silymarin treatment reversed these effects of local treatment to control group levels. Non significant differences were found between protein bands obtained in electrophoresis. Minor liver damage was obvious 48 h after thermal skin burn. Both local and systemic silymarin treatment were effective to reverse the effects of burn induced liver injury.