Potential role of proteasome on c-jun related signaling in hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis
Kartal Özer, Nesrin
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Atherosclerosis and its complications are major causes ofdeath all over the world. One of the major risksof atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia. During atherosclerosis, oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) regulates CD36-mediated activation of c-jun amino terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) and modulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) induction which stimulates inflammation with an invasion of monocytes. Additionally, inhibition of proteasome leads to an accumulation of c-jun and phosphorylated c-jun and activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) related increase of MMP expression. We have previously reported a significant increase in cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) mRNA levels in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and shown that vitamin E treatment prevented the cholesterol induced increase in CD36 mRNA expression. In the present study, our aim is to identify the signaling molecules/transcription factors involved in the progression of atherosclerosis following CD36 activation in an in vivo model of hypercholesterolemic (induced by 2% cholesterol containing diet) rabbits. In this direction, proteasomal activities by fluorometry and c-jun, phospo c-jun, JNK1, MMP-9 expressions by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were tested in aortic tissues. The effects of vitamin E on these changes were also investigated in this model. As a result, c-jun was phosphorylated following decreased proteasomal degradation in hypercholesterolemic group. MMP-9 expression was also increased in cholesterol group rabbits contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, vitamin E showed its effect by decreasing MMP-9 levels and phosphorylation of c-jun. © 2014 The Authors.