Essential oil compositions and antimicrobial activity of piper arborescens roxb.
SALLEH, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan
KHONG, Heng Yen
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The essential oils obtained from the leaves and stems of Piper arborescens by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Fifty components have been identified from the leaves and stems oils, comprise of thirty six (97.5%) and forty six (90.5%) components, respectively. The most abundant components in the leaves oil were β-phellandrene (24.3%), sabinene (16.3%), α-pinene (10.4%) and terpinen-4-ol (7.2%), while β-phellandrene (20.4%), methyl eugenol (11.0%) and β-caryophyllene (9.0%) were the main components in the stems oil. The essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity by using disc diffusion and micro dilution methods for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results showed that the leaves oil exhibited significant antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value 250 µg/ mL, while stems oil showed the activity against Gram positive bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal, Aspergillus niger each with MIC value 500 µg/mL.